Urinary supersaturation initiates deposition of calciumoxalate (CaOx) and calcium phosphate crystals at different locations in the renal tubules. Hyperoxaluria, hypercalciuria, hypomagnesuria and hypocitraturia are implicated in both humans and animals. Hyperoxaluria provokes CaOx nephrolithiasis in both humans and rodents especially in male rats. We reviewed different models of CaOx nephrolithiasis in experimental animals classified upon the type of inducing agents and mode of administration. Generation of nephrolithiasis in experimental models require induction of long standing hyperoxaluria, conversely nephrocalcinosis which may occur within hours or days. Very few models cause induction of nephrotoxicity leading to tubular injury and regeneration appears as a critical event after crystal retention in nephrocalcinosis models.