Piliostigma reticulatum is a plant used in traditional medicine in Cameroon to treat epilepsy, anxiety, agitation. Elevated plus maze, stress-induced hyperthermia and open field tests were used to determine anxiolytic properties. The doses of the decoction used were 35, 87.5, 175 and 350 mg/kg. P. reticulatum showed antipyretic properties by reducing in a dose dependent manner the body temperature that changed from 30.73°C to 28.28°C at the dose of 350 mg/kg. P. reticulatum showed also anxiolytic activities in the three tests. In stress-induced hyperthermia test, P. reticulatum antagonised dose dependently the increase of temperature. ΔT° decreased from 0.5°C in the control group to 0.10°C at the dose of 350 mg/kg. In the elevated plus maze test, P. reticulatum strongly and significantly increased the number of entries into the open arms, the % of entries and time into the open arms, and reduced the % of entries and time into the closed arms. Rearing and head dipping were as well decreased. In the open field test, P. reticulatum increased the number of crossing, centre time and grooming and reduced the number rearing and defecation. The results suggest that the decoction of P. reticulatum possesses anxiolytic and antipyretic properties in mice and could really be helpful in the treatment of anxiety in Traditional medicine in Cameroon.
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